 C Language C POINTERS INTRODUCTION What are POINTERS? Illustration of POINTER assignments Illustration - II Illustration - III POINTER arithmetic- POINTER + number POINTER - number POINTER - POINTER NULL POINTER Common Errors DEREFERENCING NULL DANGLING POINTER REFERENCING DE-ALLOCATED MEMORY MEMORY MANAGEMENT

Subtraction of a number from the pointer :      Pointer- number

When we subtract some integer from the pointer then the address stored in the pointer is decremented by

number * sizeof (datatype of pointer)

Assume space required for data types int & char are 2 & 1 bytesresp.

And we represent a particular block of memory filled with random values (not shown) as: If we declare the pointers as

int *x:

int *y:

int i=3;// starting address of i is 9 and is 2 byte wide.

x=&i;

printf(“value at x is %d”, *x); // output we get is 3 i.e. value stored at location 9 & 10

x=x-1; // now x points to space with starting address 7

printf(“value at x is %d”, *x); //output we get is random value i.e. value stored at location 7& 8h

x=x-3; // we subtact 3*2=6 more i.e. now x points to address 1

printf(“value at x is %d”, *x); // output we get is random value i.e. value stored at location 1&2

If we declare the pointers as

char *x:

char *y:

char i // starting address of i is 9 and is 1 byte wide.

x=&i;

printf(“value at x is %d”, *x); // output we get is the value stored at location 9

x=x-1; // we subtract 1*1=1 and now x points to space with starting address 8

printf(“value at x is %d”, *x); // output we get is a random value i.e. value stored at location 10

x=x-3; // we subtract 3*1=3 more i.e. now x points to address 7