Digital Electronics NUMBER SYSTEM BINARY CODES TYPES OF BINARY CODES BCD CODE EFFICIENCY OF BCD EXCESS-3 CODE GRAY CODE M out of N CODING SCHEME with EFFICIENCY PARITY BIT ERROR DETECTION by PARITY QUESTION HAMMING CODE (General form) Relation of PARITY BIT with MESSAGE BITS ILLUSTRATION-I ILLUSTRATION-II BOOLEAN ALGEBRA K MAPS COMBINATIONAL CKT SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS TIMING CIRCUITS

Eg. Find out the parity bit (odd) for message 1100

As 1100 has 2 i.e. even number of 1’s so we take parity bit (odd) as 1 to make odd number of 1’s out of 5 bits

So message we send is 11001 (5th is the parity bit)

Eg. Find out the parity bit (even) for message 1100

As we have 2 i.e. even number of 1’s so we take parity bit (even) as 0 so that number of 1’s remain even. Hence the message is 11000 (5th is the parity bit)

Eg. Find out the parity bit (even) for message 1000

As we have 1 i.e. odd number of 1’s so we take parity bit (even) as 1 so that number of 1’s as even. Hence the message is 10001 (5th is the parity bit)