Digital Electronics NUMBER SYSTEM BINARY CODES BOOLEAN ALGEBRA K MAPS COMBINATIONAL CKT SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION CLOCK BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR DERIVATION of FLIPFLOP circuit RS FLIPFLOP RS FLIPFLOP(NAND IMPLEMENTATION) R'S' FLIPFLOP Clocking RS LATCH Other LATCHes Timing problem in LATCHES ASYNCHRONUS INPUTS Parameters of CLOCK pulse QUESTIONS(LATCH using MUX) EDGE SENSITIVE LATCH (i.e. FLIPFLOP) MASTER SLAVE FF D FF USING MUX TIMING PARAMETERS OF FF CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS OF FFs EXCITATION TABLES OF FF CONVERSION OF 1 FF TO OTHER FF as 1bit MEMORY CELL REGISTERS SHIFT REGISTERS RING COUNTER JOHNSON COUNTER QUESTION(Serial Data transfer) ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS RIPPLE COUNTER COUNTER other than MOD-2n Designing COUNTER Using K-MAPS QUESTION(MOD 6 counter) QUESTION(Counter design) DOWN COUNTER QUESTION(Counter design) GLITCH SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER COMPARISON B/W SYNC. & ASYNC. COUNTERS CLOCK SKEW QUESTION(Maximum frequency question) QUESTION(Maximum frequency question) MORE QUESTIONS TIMING CIRCUITS

Ring counter:

This is a special type of register in which 1 moves in the output in the ring i.e. initially output of 1st FF is 1. On next edge this 1 is transferred to output of 2nd FF while previous output becomes 0. Similarly on next clock output of 3rd FF becomes 1. Similarly it continuous till last FF goes 1. After this 1st FF goes 1 goes again and whole procedure is repeated. This way 1 is moved in a ring as:

i.e.

Clock                     Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1

Initially                  0001

1st tick                   0010

2nd                          0100

3rd                           1000

4th                           0001

And so on

Hence we use only 4 states out of 16 states possible in Ring counter.

Or we can say there are 12 unused states in Ring counter.

Circuit diagram to achieve Ring Counter is as:

To start the Ring counter, we firstly give START=0 and then rightmost FF is set and all others are reset and hence initial output is 0001

We can also realize Ring counter using JK flip-flop as:

Application: We can use Ring counter in the system where we have to perform different operations sequentially and repeatedly. Suppose we have to do operations A, B, C & D. Firstly we have to do A, then B, then C, and then D. after performing all operations we have to perform operation A and so on. In this case we can use Ring counter to initiate these operations sequentially.