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PROJECT BASICS
POWER SUPPLY
INTRODUCTION
DC POWER from AC
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMATION
RECTIFICATION
FILTERING
REGULATION
DESIGNING OF FINAL CIRCUIT
BATTERY POWER
TYPES of BATTERY
DESIGN QUESTION
HOW LOAD AFFECTS POWER SUPPLY
SENSORS
RELAY
CURRENT BUFFER
BIDIRECTIONAL CURRENT BUFFER
PARALLEL PORT
LEVEL SHIFTER
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
PROJECT IDEAS
 

 

 

There are two types of batteries:

  1. Primary batteries (non rechargeable)
  2. Secondary batteries (these can be recharged).

 

Primary batteries:

Primary batteries are those that can not recharge. Once they lose energy, they have to be replaced. Primary batteries are of different types. Most common are zinc chloride with carbon electrodes dry cells. The cell voltage is 1.5V. These are cheapest of all primary batteries. Increasingly, alkaline cell also of 1.5v are become popular. They have higher capacity compared to the zinc chloride with carbon electrode dry cells. The cell voltage is 1.5v are become popular. They have higher capacity compared to zinc chloride cells. Alkaline cell also have higher self life then the zinc chloride cells. Another type of primary battery is a lithium battery with cell voltage of 3.0v. These batteries are expansive compared to zinc chloride and alkaline batteries but have much higher energy density and self life of upto 10 years.              

 Secondary batteries:

The secondary batteries have the advantage that they can be recharge after being discharge. Most popular of these batteries is the NiCD(nickel cadmium) and the lead acid batteries. The NiCD batteries have a cell voltage of 1.2V, the so- called 9V box type NiCD batteries are actually about 8.2v. the lead acid batteries have a cell voltage of 2V. Lead acid batteries of the so-called sealed variety are safe for use in portable instruments. Contrary to the lead acid batteries used in car, these do not pose any danger of leaking.

Lead acid batteries have higher energy density then NiCD. The lead acid batteries also have a relatively larger retention compared to the NiCD batteries.

Secondary batteries perform well if they are recharged regularly. If these batteries are discharged more then a certain minimum there operational life reduces drastically.

Batteries are charged at a fraction of there Ah rating. Typically lead acid batteries are charged at a 10th of the Ah rating of the battery. NiCD batteries, on the other hand are quite quirky. NiCD batteries are recommended to be initially charged at a 10th of Ah rating and then switched over to trickle charging at fraction (1/50) of the Ah rating.

 

 

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