Timing Circuits

SCHMITT Trigger

As we have generally slow changing DATA signals i.e. DATA signals have slow rising and falling edges. And use of these signals creates problems in the working of Digital circuits. Hence to avoid these problems we use SCHMITT TRIGGER to sharpen up the edges of DATA. The transfer characteristics of this trigger are as follow: […]

Timing Circuits

555 Timer: Astable Operation

In Astable operation, we have no stable states. Hence we say that timer doesn’t stay in any of the two states indefinitely i.e. vibrates between the two states. Hence we don’t need trigger in this case. This is also called Astable Multi-vibrator. This is also called free-running multi-vibrator. When-ever we give power to the timer, we get the […]

Timing Circuits

Timing Circuits: Introduction

The timing circuits are the special purpose circuits which are generally used in digital circuits. We have the following important types of timing circuits: 1. 555 Timers are used in timing circuits very often as they are more reliable and lost cost. We have the two modes of operation of 555 Timer:                 Monostable operation Astable […]

Sequential Circuits

Q8: MOD 8 Counter

Q-Implement a MOD-8 counter using Parallel-in Parallel-out register and Adder. Ans: We have a 3-bit register with two common inputs CLK & CLEAR for all 3 FFs. So we initiate the counter we clear all the FFs and then give clock.  Whenever count reaches 7 output of adder becomes 000 with carry 1 and carry is […]

Sequential Circuits

Q6: Maximum Frequency

Q- Find the maximum clock frequency of the following circuit and specifications of the flip-flop are as T (setup) = 5ns T (hold time) = 4ns             T (CLK to Q) = 9ns and maximum delay of the combinational circuit is T (c-delay) = 13 ns and delay of buffer is T (buf) = 2ns. Delay of […]

Sequential Circuits

Q4: Maximum Frequency

Q- Find the maximum clock frequency of the following circuit and specifications of the flip-flop are as T (setup) = 5ns T (hold time) = 4ns T (CLK to Q) = 9ns and delay of other components is T (buf) = 2ns,� ï¿½  T (AND) = 4 ns, T (OR) = 4 ns,� ï¿½ ï¿½ ï¿½  T (NOT) = […]

Sequential Circuits

Q3: Binary Multiplier

Q-Implement binary multiplication using shifter: Eg. If we are multiply 11 * 4 Then 11 = 1011                  4 = 0100 Algorithm: For multiplication we first multiply the LSB of 4 (multiplier) with multiplicand and then shift it towards right. Then we multiply the next bit and then add it to the shifted result. Again we MULTIPLY, ADD […]