Timing Circuits


As we have generally slow changing DATA signals i.e. DATA signals have slow rising and falling edges. And use of these signals creates problems in the working of Digital circuits. Hence to avoid these problems we use SCHMITT TRIGGER to sharpen up the edges of DATA. The transfer characteristics of this trigger are as follow: […]

Analog Electronics

Diode: Reverse Biasing

 When the polarity of the external voltage source is opposite to the above case i.e. when positive terminal is connected to n-side and negative terminal to p-side, then diode is said to be reverse biased as shown below: When we reverse bias the diode, the majority carriers have again 3 types of forces acting on […]

Analog Electronics

Diode: Forward Biasing

When we apply voltage across the diode, as shown below: When the voltage applied across the diode is greater than the barrier voltage, the electrons and the holes present in the n-type and the p-type regions of the diode acquire enough energy to cross the barrier at the junction.                 Now if we talk in […]

Project Basics


The relay is simply an electrically operated switch i.e. relay has two states and state of the relay depends upon the presence of electrical signal. The relay is usually cuboid shaped and has 5 pins. WHERE TO USE: The relay is used as a switch between two independent circuits. I.e. one circuit can be used […]

Project Basics

Battery Power

The batteries are available in various shapes and sizes and generally the following are main parameters which need to be considered while selecting batteries: 1. Energy content or capacity: This is express in Ah (mAh).This is important characteristic that indicates how long the battery can last before it discharges and become useless. For a given battery […]