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Analog Electronics

Atomic structure: Semiconductors

Diode is made by combining different type of semi conducting materials known as p-type semiconductor and n-type semi conductor. We have the pure semi conductor as combinations of silicon atom forming four covalent bonds with other silicon atoms as shown below:

P-type semiconductor:

This type of semiconducting material is made by defusing impurity of trivalent type of material in the pure form of semiconductor as shown below:

In the above example we have used Boron as trivalent impurity and we represent the p-type semiconductor as

In the diagram above circled –ve are fixed ions and small circle are the holes which are the majority charges.

N-type semiconductor:

This type of semiconducting material is made by defusing impurity of pentavalent type of material in the pure form of semiconductor as shown below:

In the above example we have used Antimony as pentavalent impurity. We represent the n-tye semiconductors as

In the diagram above circled +ve are fixed ions and small –ve signs are the electrons which are the majority charges.

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